The demographic studies of the Tribes are far and few in Inida. A small number of studies have been conducted for explaining the influence of fertility behaviour in general. No. efforts hitherto have been made to isolate the socio-cultural variables explaining the fertility patterns and the differences those exist in the tribal community. The tribes are culturally diversed and ethnically different from castes societies. ince tribal people are the most fascinating and perhaps the oldest surviving inhabitants of the Country, their antiquity thus is evidenced by their extreme primitiveness. The census data proves that fertility is one of the most important factors for accelerating the population growth of the tribbal population in Southern Rajasthan. In fact the ever encreasing population has compelled the social scientists and the demographers to understand the dynamics of population problem of the tribal community. The present study is an endeavour in this field which would open ways to understnad the mechanism of fertility behaviour in complex web of social cultural norms of the tribes. The study is based broadly on the field work concerning to the various facets of reproductive behaviours of tribal women and their existing pattern of socio-economic and cultural system,. In the crucial time such as this one, when development programmes are largely focussed on rural and weaker sections of the population, it is hoped that this study would certainly be of help in formulating the policy for developing a strategy of fertility control programme in the tribal areas and it would also be a contribution towards building a sociological theory of tribal fertility. I am sure , the study would undoubtedly be proved a caralyst among those who have keen interest in the dynamics of tribal population in general and for the policy makers of the Country in Particular.